Tijaniyyah Tariqah (Sufi order)

Question:

We have so many followers of the Tijaniyyah (a deviant Sufi sect embracing strange beliefs far from Islam), but I have known from your Program “Nur ‘ala Al-Darb” that it is an innovated Tariqah (Sufi order) that must not be followed. However, my family members recite the remembrance litanies of Shaykh Ahmad Al-Tijany, which is Salat-ul-Fatih (Remembrance from the Tijaniyyah order). They claim that Salat-ul-Fatih is the correct form of sending peace and blessings on the Prophet (peace be upon him); is this true?

They also claim that whoever used to recite Salat-ul-Fatih and stop reciting it becomes a Kafir (disbeliever). They believe that if one cannot persist in reciting it and stops, no blame is there but if they are able to recite it and stop, they have turned into a Kafirs. I told my father that this is not correct and is not permissible but he accused me of being a follower of the Wahhabi order. Please, advise!

Answer:

Undoubtedly, Tijaniyyah is an innovated Tariqah and Muslims are not permitted to follow innovated Tariqahs, whether the Tijaniyyah or any other. Rather, they must follow and adhere to what was revealed to the Messenger (peace be upon him), because Allah says: “Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم to mankind): “If you (really) love Allâh then follow me (i.e. accept Islâmic Monotheism, follow the Qur’ân and the Sunnah), Allâh will love you and forgive you your sins.” [Aal Imran: 31]

This means that Allah is telling the Prophet (peace be upon him) to tell the people to follow him, if they love Allah so that Allah will love them and forgive their sins. Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says: “[Say (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) to these idolaters (pagan Arabs) of your folk:] Follow what has been sent down unto you from your Lord (the Qur’ân and Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah), and follow not any Auliyâ’ (protectors and helpers who order you to associate partners in worship with Allâh), besides Him (Allâh). Little do you remember!” [Al-A’raf: 3]

Allah (Exalted be He) says: “And whatsoever the Messenger (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). And fear Allâh; verily, Allâh is Severe in punishment.” [Al-Hashr: 7]

Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He) says: “And verily, this (i.e. Allâh’s Commandments mentioned in the above two Verses 151 and 152) is My Straight Path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His Path.” [Al-An’am: 153]

Paths refer to innovated Tariqahs, such as Bid’ahs (innovations in religion), whims, doubtful matters, and unlawful desires. Allah has obligated the people to follow His Straight Path, as shown in the Qur’an and the Sunnah, which was authentically reported from the Prophet. This is the Path that must be followed, not Tijaniyyah, Shadhliyyah, Qadiriyyah or other Tariqahs innovated by people.

It is not permissible to follow these Tariqahs, except a practice which conforms to Allah’s Shar’i (Law). In this case, it is permissible to act according to this practice, because it conforms with the Purified Shar`, not because it is one of the practices of such and such Tariqah due to the previously quoted Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) and the following ones:

Indeed in the Messenger of Allâh (Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) you have a good example to follow for him who hopes for (the Meeting with) Allâh and the Last Day, and remembers Allâh much.” [Al-Ahzab: 21]

Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) also says: “And the foremost to embrace Islâm of the Muhâjirûn (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansâr (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhâjirûn ) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allâh is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.” [Al-Tawbah: 100]

The Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) also says: “Whoever innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected.” Agreed upon by Al-Bukhari and Muslim as narrated on the authority of Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her). 1

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever does any act for which there is no sanction from our behalf, that is to be rejected.” (Related by Muslim in his Sahih (authentic) Book of Hadith)) 2

He (peace be upon him) also said during a Friday Khutbah (sermon): “And then, the best of speech is embodied in the Book of Allah, and the best of guidance is the guidance given by Muhammad (peace be upon him). And the most evil affairs are their innovations; and every Bid’ah is error.” (Related by Muslim in his Sahih as narrated on the authority of Jabir ibn `Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with them both)).3

There are several Hadiths conveying the same meanings. Salat-ul-Fatih is, indeed, the form of sending peace and blessings on the Prophet, as they claim. However, its wording was not reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him), because it says: “O Allah! Send peace and blessings on our master and Prophet Muhammad, Al-Fatih (the Opener) of what is closed, the Seal of what preceded him, and the one who supported Al-Haqq (the Truth) with the Al-Haqq.” This wording was not reported in any Sahih Hadiths (authentic Hadith) in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) explained the form of sending peace and blessings on him when the Sahabah (Companions of the Prophet) asked him about it.

Thus, it is prescribed for Muslims to send peace and blessings on the Prophet (peace be upon him) using the wording, which he ordained for them and taught them without any innovations.

Such wordings were detailed in what was authentically reported in the Two Sahih Books of Hadith (i.e. Al-Bukhari and Muslim) on the authority of Ka’ab ibn ‘Ujrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who narrated that the Sahabah (may Allah be pleased with them) said: “O Messenger of Allah, Allah has ordered us to send peace and blessings on you, how should we do that? He (peace be upon him) said: Say: O Allah! Send peace on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You sent peace on Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim, for You are Praiseworthy and Glorified. O Allah! Send blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You sent blessings on Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim, for You are Praiseworthy and Glorified.4

Another wording was authentically reported in the Two Sahih on the authority of Abu Humayd Al-Sa’idi (may Allah be pleased with him) from the Prophet (peace be upon him) who said: “Say: O Allah! Send peace on Muhammad, his wives, and offspring as You sent peace on the family of Ibrahim. Send blessings on Muhammad, his wives, and offspring as You sent blessings on Ibrahim and the family of Ibrahim, for You are Praiseworthy and Glorified.5

In a third Hadith related by Muslim in his Sahih on the authority of Abu Mas’ud Al-Ansari (may Allah be pleased with him) who narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Say: O Allah! Send peace on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You sent peace on the family of Ibrahim. Send blessings on Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as You sent blessings on the family of Ibrahim in the Worlds. You are, indeed, Praiseworthy and Glorified.6

These Hadiths and others conveying the same meaning show the wording of sending peace and blessings on the Prophet (peace be upon him), which he has prescribed for his Ummah (nation based on one creed).

As for Salat-ul-Fatih, even if its intended meaning may be correct in general, it is not permissible to recite it and refrain from reciting what was authentically reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him) regarding how should we send peace and blessings on him, of which we are ordered. Even more, the phrase “The Opener of what is closed” is broad in meaning and can be falsely explained by those who follow their whims. Allah is the One Who grants success!


  1. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on reconciliation, no. 2697; Muslim, Sahih, Book on judicial decisions, no. 1718; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Book on Al-Sunnah, no. 4606; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction, no. 14; and Ahmad, Musnad, vol. 6, p. 240. 

  2. Muslim, Sahih, Book on judicial decisions, no. 1718; and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 6, p. 256. 

  3. Muslim, Sahih, Book on Friday, no. 867; Al-Nasa’i, Sunan, Book on the two ‘Eid Prayers, no. 1578; Abu Dawud, Book on tribute, spoils, and rulership, no. 2954; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction, no. 45; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 311; and Al-Darimy, Sunan, Introduction, no. 206. 

  4. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on supplications, no. 6357; Muslim, Sahih, Book on Salah, no. 406; Al-Tirmidhy, Sunan, Book on Salah, no. 483; Al-Nasa’i, Sunan, Book on Sujud-ul-Sahw, no. 1289; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Book on Salah, no. 976; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Book on performing Prayer and its Sunan, no. 904; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 244; and Al-Darimy, Sunan, Book on Salah, no. 1342. 

  5. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on Prophets, no. 3369; Muslim, Sahih, Book on Salah, no. 407; Al-Nasa’i, Sunan, Book on Sujud-ul-Sahw, no. 1294; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Book on Salah, no. 979; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Book on performing Prayer and its Sunan, no. 905; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 424; Malik, Al-Muwatta*, Book on call to Prayer, no. 397. 

  6. Muslim, Sahih, Book on Salah, no. 405; Al-Tirmidhy, Sunan, Book on Tafsir, no. 3220; Al-Nasa’i, Sunan, Book on Sujud-ul-Sahw, no. 1285; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 119; Malik, Al-Muwatta, Book on call to Prayer, no. 398; and Al-Darimy, Sunan, Book on Salah, no. 1343.