Do supplication and Sadaqah (voluntary charity) repel the Divine Decree and Predestination?

Question:

Do supplication and Sadaqah (voluntary charity) repel the Divine Decree and Predestination?

Answer:

Predestination that Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) decided will definitely come to pass. Allah (Glorified be He) says: “No calamity befalls on the earth or in yourselves but it is inscribed in the Book of Decrees (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz) before We bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allâh.” [Al-Hadid: 22]

He (Glorified and Exalted be He) says: “Know you not that Allâh knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lauh-al-Mahfûz). Verily that is easy for Allâh.” [Al-hajj: 70]

He (Glorified be He) also says: “Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz).” [Al-Qamar: 49]

It is authentically narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to Gabriel (peace be upon him) when he asked about Iman (Faith): “Iman (faith) implies that you affirm your faith in Allah, in His angels, in His Books, in His Prophets, in the Day of Judgment, and you affirm your faith in the Divine Decree whether good or bad.1

The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said: “Allah had ordained the measures (of quality) of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth.2 He then added, “and His Throne was upon the water.” Related by Imam Muslim in his Sahih (authentic) book of Hadith 3.

The Prophet (may Allah’s Peace and Blessings be upon him) also says: “Every thing is decreed even incapability and ability” Related by Muslim.4

There are many Ayahs (Qur’anic verses) and Hadiths to this effect. Actions are contingent on their causes as was authentically reported from the Prophet (peace be upon him), saying: “A man is deprived of provision for a sin he commits. Only kindness prolongs life and only supplication averts the decree.5 It means that supplication averts only the Predestination, which is contingent on supplication.

Also, he (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever is pleased that he be granted more wealth and that his term of life be prolonged, then he should keep good relations with his Kith and kin.6

Predestination is averted by other predestinations that Allah (Glorified be He) decided to counter, and the predestinations whose occurrence is contingent on the existence of things, such as dutifulness to parents, maintaining kinship ties and charity, coexist with them. All these are subject to the generic Predestination mentioned in Allah’s saying: “Verily, We have created all things with Qadar (Divine Preordainments of all things before their creation as written in the Book of Decrees Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz).” [Al-Qamar: 49]

And the Prophet’s saying: “and believe in the Divine Decree, whether good or bad.” Examples of this type may be found in the saying of the Prophet (peace be upon him): “Charity extinguishes (i.e., removes) the sins as water extinguishes fire.7

The Prophet (peace be upon him) also said: “Hidden charity extinguishes the wrath of Allah and saves from an evil death.”

All Ayahs and Hadiths quoted in this regard call a Muslim to believe that he will never be afflicted with anything except what Allah decreed for him and that whatever afflicts him can never escape him and whatever escapes him cannot afflict him. They also urge him to hasten to do good deeds and join others in acts of worship. A Muslim should be keen to venture means of goodness and avoid means of evil, asking Allah to guide and help them do what pleases Him and avoid every evil.

It is narrated in the Two Sahih (authentic) Books of Hadith (i.e., Al-Bukhari and Muslim) that: One day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said to his Companions: “There is none among you but has a place assigned for him either in the Paradise or in Hell.’’ The Companions said: “O Messenger of Allah, should we not depend upon what has been written for us (and give up doing good deeds)?’’ The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, “Carry on doing good deeds. Every one will find it easy to do such deeds (as will lead him to his destined place) for which he has been created. People of Paradise will find it easy to do deeds of the people of Paradise, and People of Hell will find it easy to do deeds of the people of Hell. The Prophet (peace be upon him) then recited Allah’s saying: ‘As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allâh and fears Him, And believes in Al-Husnâ. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness). But he who is greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-Husnâ (See the footnote of the Verse No.6) We will make smooth for him the path for evil.’” [Al-Layl: 5-10] 8

Allah is the Source of Success.


  1. Muslim, Sahih, Book on faith, no. 8; Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Book on faith, no. 2610; Al-Nasa’i, Sunan, Book on faith and its laws, no. 4990; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Book on Al-Sunnah, no. 4695; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction, no. 63; and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 27. 

  2. Muslim, Sahih, Book on destiny, no. 2653; Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Book on destiny, no. 2156; and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Munsad, vol. 2, p. 169. 

  3. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on Tawhid, no. 7419; Muslim, Sahih, Book on Zakah, no. 993; Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Book on Tafsir, no. 3045; and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, p. 313. 

  4. Muslim, Sahih, Book on destiny, no. 2655; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, p. 110; and Malik, Al-Muwatta, Book on miscellaneous matters, no. 1663. 

  5. Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction, no. 90; and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 5, p. 280. 

  6. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on manners, no. 5985. 

  7. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Book on faith, no. 2616. 

  8. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Book on Tafsir, no. 4949; Muslim, Sahih, Book on destiny, no. 2647; Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Book on destiny, no. 2136; Abu Dawud, Sunan, Book on Sunnah, no. 4694; Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction, no. 78; and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 157.